गोलियों से मरते किसान और धूल खाती स्वामीनाथन आयोग की सिफारिशें

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बीते कुछ दिनो से महाराष्ट्र और मध्यप्रदेश, ‘किसान आंदोलन’ के चलते सुर्ख़ियों में हैं, जहाँ किसान कर्ज़-माफी और कृषि नीति आदि जैसी अपनी कई मांगों को लेकर प्रदर्शन कर रहे हैं। हाल ही में, पुलिस की गोलियों से 5 किसानों को अपनी जान गँवानी पड़ी।

क्या है पूरा मामला-

न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य और अन्य मांगों को लेकर प्रदर्शन कर रहे मध्यप्रदेश के किसानों का अांदोलन, 1 जून को उग्र हो गया। मंदसौर में प्रदर्शनकारी, दूध और सब्जी से लदे वाहनों को रोककर सामान सड़क पर बिखेरते हुए अपना विरोध जताने लगे।
5 जून को प्रदर्शनकारी, पिपलिया मंडी के बाज़ार में जबरन दुकानें बंद कराने लगे। प्रत्यक्षदर्शियों के अनुसार जिस भी व्यापारी ने इसका विरोध किया, उसकी दुकान जला कर खाक कर दी गयी।
6 जून को सरकार के सामने अपनी मांगों को लेकर अनशन पर बैठे किसानों का आंदोलन उपद्रव में तब्दील हो गया, जिसके बाद पुलिस की फायरिंग में पाँच किसानों की मौत हो गयी।
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लेकिन आखिर ऐसी क्या वजह है कि अन्नदाता आज इस हालत में हैं ?

मध्यप्रदेश किसानों की क्या हैं माँगें ?

  • किसानों को उचित समर्थन मूल्य दिया जाए।
  • मंडी का मूल्य निश्चित किया जाए।
  • किसानों को पेंशन देने की व्यवस्था की जाए।
  • स्वामीनाथन आयोग की सिफारिशों को लागू किया जाए।

क्या हैं महाराष्ट्र के किसानों की माँगें ?

  • पूरा कर्ज़ माफ किया जाए।
  • स्वामीनाथन कमेटी की सिफारिशों को लागू किया जाए।
  • 60 साल से ज़्यादा उम्र वाले किसानों को पेंशन दी जाए।
  • लागत से डेढ़ गुना न्यूनतम् समर्थन मूल्य (मिनिमम सपोर्ट प्राइस) मिले।

यह भी पढ़ें:

अगले जनम मोहे किसान न कीजो

किसानों की दुखती रग, कर्जमाफी की दास्ताँ

2 जून की रोटी को बेहाल, फिर भी “जय जवान जय किसान”

विकास बनाम माओवाद की अंधी दौड़; फिर लहुलूहान हुआ लाल गलियारा

क्या है स्वामीनाथन आयोग और उसकी सिफारिशें ?

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केंद्र सरकार द्वारा नवंबर 2004 में प्रोफेसर स्वामीनाथन की अध्यक्षता में ‘नेशनल् कमीशन ऑन फार्मर्स’ का गठन् किया गया। 2 सालों के भीतर इस कमेटी ने अपनी 6 रिपोर्ट सरकार को सौंप दी। जिसमें सरकार को सिफारिश थी-
  1. फसल उत्पादन मूल्य से पचास प्रतिशत ज़्यादा दाम किसानों को मिले।
  2. किसानों को कम दाम पर अच्छे क्वालिटी के बीज मुहैया कराए जाएं।
  3. गाँव में किसानों की मदद के लिए विलेज-नालेज सेंटर यानी ज्ञान चौपाल बनाई जाए।
  4. महिला किसानों के लिए किसान क्रेडिट कार्ड जारी किया जाए।
  5. किसानों के लिए कृषि जोखिम फंड की स्थापना हो, जिससे प्राकृतिक आपदा में किसान को मदद मिल सके।
  6. सरपल्स और इस्तेमाल न हो रही जमीन के टुकड़ों का वितरण किया जाए।
  7. खेतिहर भूमि और वनभूमि को गैर-कृषि उद्देश्यों के लिए कॉर्पोरेट को न दिया जाए।
  8. खेती के लिए कर्ज़ की व्यवस्था हर गरीब तक पहुँचे।
  9. फसल बीमा योजना पूरे देश में, हर फसल के लिए दी जाए।
  10. सरकार की मदद से किसानो को दिए जाने वाले कर्ज़ के लिए ब्याज दरें घटाकर चार फीसदी की जाए।
  11. कर्ज़ की वसूली में राहत, प्राकृतिक आपदा या संकट से जूझ रहे इलाक़ों में हालत सामान्य होने तक ब्याज से राहत रहे।
  12. लगातार प्रकृतिक आपदाओं की सूरत में किसानों को आर्थिक मदद देने के लिए एग्रीकल्चर रिस्क फंड बनाया जाए।

 किसानों के हाल हैं बेहालः

महाराष्ट्र हो या मध्य प्रदेश, तमिलनाडु हो या उत्तर्-प्रदेश किसान प्रदर्शन कर रहे हैं। कोई सूखे की मार झेल रहा है, तो किसी को अपनी फसल का उचित दाम नही मिल रहा। ऐसे में बड़ा सवाल ये उठता है कि इतने लंबे समय से सरकार ने आखिर इन सभी सिफारिशों को क्यूँ नही माना?
किसानों की मौत पर क्यों नेता चुप्पी साधे हुए हैं? देश के प्रधानमन्त्री, कृषिमंत्री राधामोहन सिंह का इसपर अबतक कोई बयान क्यों सामने नही आ रहा ?
चौंकाने वाली बात है कि मध्य प्रदेश में भाजपा सरकार किसानों को पिछले 13 साल से समर्थन मूल्य में कुछ बोनस देती थी लेकिन केंद्र सरकार ने उसे बंद कर दिया।

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देश में किसानों की आत्महत्या के आँकड़े डराने वाले हैं जिनसे पता चलता है कि देश का अन्नदाता कितनी विषम परिस्थितियों से गुज़र रहा है-

  • नेशनल् क्राइम रेकॉर्ड ब्यूरो ऑफ इंडिया (2014) के मुताबिक देश में 5,650 किसानों ने आत्महत्या की, जिसमें 5,178 पुरुष और 472 महिलायें थी। जो भारत में होने वाली आत्महत्यों की घटनाओं का 4.3 फीसदी हिस्सा है।
  •  सन् 2011 से 2013 के बीच 10,00 से भी ज़्यादा आत्महत्याओं के साथ महाराष्ट्र इस सूची में पहले स्थान पर था।
  • किसानों की आत्महत्याओं की मुख्य वजहें – कर्ज़े का बोझ (21.5%), घरेलू समस्यायें (20%), खेती संबंधित समस्या (16.8%), बीमारी (13.2%) , नशा आदि (4.8%) रहीं।  
  • 1999-2003 के बीच 84,214 किसानों ने आत्महत्या की।

यह भी पढ़ें:

अगले जनम मोहे किसान न कीजो

किसानों की दुखती रग, कर्जमाफी की दास्ताँ

2 जून की रोटी को बेहाल, फिर भी “जय जवान जय किसान”

विकास बनाम माओवाद की अंधी दौड़; फिर लहुलूहान हुआ लाल गलियारा

मुख्यमंत्री बैठे अनशन परः

वैश्विक स्तर पर भारतीय कृषि का 7.68 फीसदी योगदान है तो वहीं भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में सबसे ज़्यादा लोगों क पेट पालने वाले कृषिक्षेत्र में हाहाकार मचा हुआ है।  हालांकि इस बीच मध्यप्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री शिवराज सिंह चौहान ने आंदोलन के हिंसक हो जाने और आगजनी की घटनाओं के बाद बातचीत से मसला हल करने की कवायद को आगे बढ़ाते हुए अनशन पर बैठने का ऐलान किया। उन्होने कहा कि उनकी सरकार गरीबों की सरकार है और किसानों की किसी भी समस्या को मध्यप्रदेश सरकार किसानों के साथ वार्ता कर हल करने को तैयार हैं।
shivraj

राजनीति नहीं, हल निकलना चाहिएः

बीते दिनों मध्य-प्रदेश में किसान प्रदर्शन के उग्र हो जाने के बाद पुलिस-प्रदर्शनकारियों की झड़प में पुलिस फायरिंग से हुई किसानों की मौत ने एक बार फिर किसानों के मुद्दे पर सरकार को घेरने की सियासत को हवा दे दी है।
इस घटना के बाद कांग्रेस उपाध्यक्ष राहुल गांधी ने मंदसौर का दौरा किया, जिस दौरान उन्हे गिरफ्तार कर लिया गया।
लेकिन बड़ा सवाल ये भी उठता है कि पूर्ववर्ती सरकार के समय जब यह सिफारिशें आ चुकी थी तो फिर 8 साल (2006 से 2014) तक इसपर क्यो कोई नीति नही बनाई गयी?
हालांकि राजनीतिक दृष्टिकोण से देखा जाए तो आरएसएस के गढ़ मंदसौर में इस प्रकार से भाजपा सरकार के खिलाफ हो रहे प्रदर्शनों में विपक्षी दलों को उम्मीद की किरण आती दिख रही है, लेकिन क्या कोई वास्तव में किसानों के बारे में सोच रहा है ???

Post Author: Medhansh Trivedi

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