कितना सही है वित्त वर्ष और कैलेण्ड़र वर्ष का एक होना ?

नई दिल्लीः केन्द्र में वित्त वर्ष (1 अप्रेल से 30 मार्च) को कैलेण्ड़र वर्ष (1 जनवरी से 31 दिसम्बर) के समान करने पर चर्चा चल ही रही थी, कि मध्यप्रदेश ने अपना वित्तवर्ष अप्रेल से मार्च के बजाए जनवरी से दिसम्बर करने की घोषणा कर दी।

वित्त वर्ष

क्या है मामलाः

केंद्र सरकार ने अब राज्य सरकारों से कहा है कि वे अपने वित्त वर्ष को जनवरी से दिसंबर के चक्र में तब्दील करने पर विचार करें।

पहले केंद्रीय बजट पेश करने की तारीख को कुछ माह आगे किया गया था। ऐसा करने पर एक बार फिर बजट पेश करने की तारीख बदलनी होगी।

उल्लेखनीय है कि मध्य प्रदेश सरकार ने अपने वित्त वर्ष में परिवर्तन करने का निर्णय लिया है।

मध्य प्रदेश सरकार चाहती है कि राज्य के वित्तीय वर्ष को ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर (1 जनवरी से 31 दिसम्बर) के साथ संरेखित किया जाए।

नया नहीं है विचारः

वित्त वर्ष को बदलने का विचार, कोई नया विचार नहीं है।

स्वतंत्रता से पूर्व अथवा पश्चात भी इस विचार को कई बार संज्ञान में लिया जा चुका था।

इस संबंध में आवश्यक उपाय सुझाने के लिये सन 1970 के दशक के अंत में और 1980 के दशक के आरंभ में सरकार ने एल. के. झा के अधीन एक समिति गठित की थी।

सरकार का मानना है कि भारत जैसे देश में जहाँ कृषिगत आय अत्यंत अहम है, वहाँ बजट को वर्ष की कृषि संबंधी आय के निर्धारण के तत्काल बाद तैयार किया जाना चाहिए।

 

क्या होंगें फायदेःEconomic-Profit

वर्तमान वित्त वर्ष को बदलने के पीछे सबसे बड़ी दलील यह दी जा रही है कि यह कृषि कार्यों के अनुकूल नहीं है और इसके तहत मानसूनी बारिश के असर को पूरी तरह ध्यान में रखना संभव नहीं होता है।

देश की जीडीपी का लगभग 15 फीसदी हिस्सा कृषि से आता है और लगभग 58 फीसदी परिवारों की जीविका कृषि पर निर्भर है। चूँकि अक्सर किसी न किसी राज्य में जून-सितंबर के बीच सूखे की स्थिति रहती है, ऐसे में जनवरी से वित्त वर्ष शुरू होने से कृषिगत आवंटन करने में मदद मिलेगी, क्योंकि फिर बजट की तारीख और पहले आ जाएगी।

विकसित देशों समेत दुनिया के अधिकांश मुल्कों में कैलेंडर वर्ष ही वित्त वर्ष है। वैश्विक स्तर पर 156 देश, जनवरी-दिसंबर को ही अपना वित्त वर्ष मानते हैं और उसी के अनुरूप वित्तीय योजनाएँ बनाते हैं। यहाँ तक कि विश्व बैंक और अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष जैसे शीर्ष संगठन भी इसी व्यवस्था को अपनाते हैं।

यदि भारत इस व्यवस्था को अपनाता है तो वैश्विक वित्तीय संगठनों को दो तरह की व्यवस्थाओं से नहीं जूझना होगा। इससे भारत और उनके बीच बेहतर तालमेल होगा।

मुश्किलें कुछ कम नहींः

hard-work

हालाँकि कैलेंडर वर्ष को वित्त वर्ष बनाने से सभी स्तर पर कई तरह के बदलाव करने होंगे। बजट की तारीख बदलने के अलावा कर निर्धारण वर्ष और कर संरचना में परिवर्तन करना होगा। संसद के सत्र में भी बदलाव करना पड़ सकता है।

यह ध्यान देने योग्य है कि वित्तीय वर्ष कोई ऐसी सामान्य वस्तु नहीं है जिसका निर्णय राज्यों द्वारा एकाकी अथवा स्वतंत्र रूप से कर लिया जाए।

 

केंद्र ने वित्त वर्ष में परिवर्तन की वांछनीयता और व्यवहार्यता का पता लगाने के लिये पूर्व मुख्य आर्थिक सलाहकार शंकर आचार्य के नेतृत्व में एक समिति को नियुक्त किया था। हालाँकि इस समिति की सिफ़ारिशों को अभी तक सार्वजानिक नहीं किया गया है।

इस वर्ष केन्द्रीय बजट को 28 फरवरी के स्थान पर 1 फरवरी को प्रस्तुत किया गया था ताकि यह सुनिश्चित हो सके कि वित्त वर्ष के प्रथम दिन से ही मंत्रालयों को धन उपलब्ध हो जाएगा। परन्तु यहाँ प्रश्न यह उठता है कि यदि वित्त वर्ष की शुरुआत जनवरी में होती है तो क्या वर्तमान वित्त वर्ष की समाप्ति 1 नवम्बर को ही हो जानी चाहिए। 

 

मध्य प्रदेश सरकार का अगला बजट दिसम्बर अथवा जनवरी में प्रस्तुत किया जाएगा परन्तु अभी तक यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि राज्य उस धन को किस प्रकार से व्यवस्थित करेगा जिसका आवंटन इसने मार्च 2018 तक के लिये किया है ताकि उसका उपयोग 2017 के दिसम्बर माह तक ही कर लिया जाए।

जैसा कि हम जानते हैं कि सरकार इस साल जीएसटी लागू करने जा रही है, ऐसे में अगर वित्त वर्ष में बदलाव किया जाता है तो कंपनियों को अपने स्तर पर कई तरह के बदलाव करने पड़ सकते हैं। इससे उनकी परेशानी बढ़ सकती है। इस पर काफी समय और शक्ति जाया हो सकती है।

gst

क्या हों राहेंः

सरकार को सभी राज्यों से बात करके एक आम सहमति बनानी होगी। साथ ही कम्पनियों के समूहों से भी बात करनी होगी।

अलग-अलग राज्यों में अलग वित्त वर्ष, कम्पनियों के लिए बड़ी समस्या पैदा कर सकता है।

केंद्र को शंकर आचार्य पैनल की रिपोर्ट अवश्य ही सार्वजानिक करनी चाहिए तथा अपने रोडमैप को भी स्पष्ट करना चाहिए। ताकि राज्य और कर का भुगतान करने वाले नागरिक इसमें सहयोग कर सकें।

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